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Tuesday, 1 November 2011

The lineage of Bodhidharma and his disciples


In the Two Entrances and Four Acts and the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks, Daoyu and Huike are the only explicitly identified disciples of Bodhidharma.
The Jǐngdé Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Jǐngdé chuándēng lù 景德传灯录) of Dàoyuán 道原, presented to the emperor in 1004, gives Bodhidharma four disciples who, in increasing order of understanding, are Dàofū 道怤, who attains Bodhidharma's skin; the nun Dharani, who attains Bodhidharma's flesh; Dàoyù 道育, who attains Bodhidharma's bone; and Huìkě 慧可, who attains Bodhidharma's marrow.

Heng-Ching Shih states that according to the Jǐngdé chuándēng lù 景德传灯录 the first `bhikṣuni` mentioned in the Chán literature was a disciple of the First Patriarch of Chinese Chán Bodhidharma, known as Zōngzhǐ 宗旨 [early-mid 6th century]; Bodhidharma before returning to India after many years of teaching in China asked his disciples Dàofū, Bhikṣuni Zōngzhǐ, Dàoyù and Huìkě to relate their realization of the Dharma.
Zōngzhǐ is also known by her title Soji, and by Myoren, her nun name.
In the Shōbōgenzō 正法眼蔵 chapter called Katto ("Twining Vines") by Dōgen Zenji 道元禅師 (1200–1253), she is named as one of Bodhidharma's four Dharma heirs. Although the First Patriarch's line continued through another of the four, Dogen emphasizes that each of them had a complete understanding of the teaching.

The Records of different authors gave a variation of transmission lines.

According to the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (Xù gāosēng zhuàn 續高僧傳) of Dàoxuān 道宣 (596-667) the transmission line runs as follows:
  • Bodhidharma
    • Huìkě
      Huike
      Dazu Huike is considered the Second Patriarch of Chinese Chán and the twenty-ninth since Gautama Buddha.-Introduction:As with most of the early Chán patriarchs, very little firm data is available about his life...
      慧可 (487? - 593)
      • Sēngcàn
        Sengcan
        Jianzhi Sengcan is known as the Third Chinese Patriarch of Chán after Bodhidharma and thirtieth Patriarch after Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha....
        僧璨 (d.606)
        • Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651)
          • Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674)


According to the Record of the Transmission of the Dharma-Jewel (Chuán fǎbǎo jì 傳法寶記) of Dù Fěi 杜胐 the transmission line runs as follows:
  • Bodhidharma
    • Dàoyù 道育
    • Huìkě
      Huike
      Dazu Huike is considered the Second Patriarch of Chinese Chán and the twenty-ninth since Gautama Buddha.-Introduction:As with most of the early Chán patriarchs, very little firm data is available about his life...
      慧可 (487? - 593)
      • Sēngcàn
        Sengcan
        Jianzhi Sengcan is known as the Third Chinese Patriarch of Chán after Bodhidharma and thirtieth Patriarch after Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha....
        僧璨 (d.606)
        • Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651)
          • Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674)
            • Fǎrú 法如 (638-689)
            • Shénxiù 神秀 (606? - 706)


According to the History of Masters and Disciples of the Laṅkāvatāra-Sūtra (Léngqié shīzī jì 楞伽師資紀記) of Jìngjué 淨覺 (ca. 683 - ca. 650) the transmission line runs as follows:
  • Bodhidharma
    • Dàoyù 道育
    • Huìkě
      Huike
      Dazu Huike is considered the Second Patriarch of Chinese Chán and the twenty-ninth since Gautama Buddha.-Introduction:As with most of the early Chán patriarchs, very little firm data is available about his life...
      慧可 (487? - 593)
      • Sēngcàn
        Sengcan
        Jianzhi Sengcan is known as the Third Chinese Patriarch of Chán after Bodhidharma and thirtieth Patriarch after Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha....
        僧璨 (d.606)
        • Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651)
          • Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674)
            • Shénxiù 神秀 (606? - 706)
            • Xuánzé 玄賾


According to the Xiǎnzōngjì (显宗记) of Shénhuì 神会 (d. 758) the transmission line runs as follows:
  • Bodhidharma
    • Dàoyù 道育
    • Huìkě
      Huike
      Dazu Huike is considered the Second Patriarch of Chinese Chán and the twenty-ninth since Gautama Buddha.-Introduction:As with most of the early Chán patriarchs, very little firm data is available about his life...
      慧可 (487? - 593)
      • Sēngcàn
        Sengcan
        Jianzhi Sengcan is known as the Third Chinese Patriarch of Chán after Bodhidharma and thirtieth Patriarch after Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha....
        僧璨 (d.606)
        • Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651)
          • Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674)
            • Huìnéng
              Huineng
              Dajian Huineng was a Chinese Chán monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition, according to standard Zen hagiographies...
              慧能 (638-713)
              • Xuánjué 玄覺 (665-713)


Later sources:
      • Layman Xiang
      • Huagong
      • Yan'gong
      • Dhyana Master Na
      • Dhyana Master Ho
        • Hsuan-ching
        • Ching-ai
          • T'an-yen
          • Tao-an
          • Tao-p'an
          • Chih-tsang
          • Seng-chao
          • P'u-an
            • Ch'ris Min-has
            • Ching-yuan (1067–1120)

Works attributed to Bodhidharma

  • The Outline of Practice or Two Entrances
  • The Bloodstream Sutra
  • The Breakthrough Sutra
  • The Wake-Up Sutra

External links



The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.

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